Publications in peer reviewed journals

3 Publications found
  • Pathometagenomics reveals susceptibility to intestinal infection by Morganella to be mediated by the blood group-related B4galnt2 gene in wild mice.

    Vallier M, Suwandi A, Ehrhardt K, Belheouane M, Berry D, Čepić A, Galeev A, Johnsen JM, Grassl GA, Baines JF
    2023 - Gut Microbes, 1: 2164448


    Infectious disease is widely considered to be a major driver of evolution. A preponderance of signatures of balancing selection at blood group-related genes is thought to be driven by inherent trade-offs in susceptibility to disease. B4galnt2 is subject to long-term balancing selection in house mice, where two divergent allele classes direct alternative tissue-specific expression of a glycosyltransferase in the intestine versus blood vessels. The blood vessel allele class leads to prolonged bleeding times similar to von Willebrand disease in humans, yet has been maintained for millions of years. Based on in vivo functional studies in inbred lab strains, it is hypothesized that the cost of prolonged bleeding times may be offset by an evolutionary trade-off involving susceptibility to a yet unknown pathogen(s). To identify candidate pathogens for which resistance could be mediated by B4galnt2 genotype, we here employed a novel "pathometagenomic" approach in a wild mouse population, which combines bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based community profiling with histopathology of gut tissue. Through subsequent isolation, genome sequencing and controlled experiments in lab mice, we show that the presence of the blood vessel allele is associated with resistance to a newly identified subspecies of Morganella morganii, a clinically important opportunistic pathogen. Given the increasing importance of zoonotic events, the approach outlined here may find useful application in the detection of emerging diseases in wild animal populations.

  • The microbiome of kidney stones and urine of patients with nephrolithiasis.

    Lemberger U, Pjevac P, Hausmann B, Berry D, Moser D, Jahrreis V, Özsoy M, Shariat SF, Veser J
    2023 - Urolithiasis, 1: 27


    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide. Although it is a multifactorial disease, lifestyle plays a major role in its etiology. Another considerable factor could be an aberrant microbiome. In our observational single-center study, we aimed to investigate the composition of bacteria in kidney stones and urine focusing on patients with features of metabolic syndrome. Catheterized urine and kidney stones were collected prospectively from 100 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy between 2020 and 2021 at our clinic. Microbiome composition was analyzed via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Detection of bacteria was successful in 24% of the analyzed kidney stones. These patients had a prolonged length of stay compared to patients without verifiable bacteria in their stones (2.9 vs 1.5 days). Patients with features of metabolic syndrome were characterized by kidney stones colonized with classical gastrointestinal bacteria and displayed a significant enrichment of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Stones of patients without features of metabolic syndrome characterized by Ureaplasma and Staphylococcaceae. Patients with bacteria in their kidney stones exhibit a longer length of stay, possibly due to more complex care. Patients presenting with features of metabolic syndrome displayed a distinct stone microbiome compared to metabolically fit patients. Understanding the role of bacteria in stone formation could enable targeted therapy, prevention of post-operative complications and new therapeutic strategies.

  • Gene gain facilitated endosymbiotic evolution of Chlamydiae.

    Dharamshi JE, Köstlbacher S, Schön ME, Collingro A, Ettema TJG, Horn M
    2023 - Nat Microbiol, 1: 40-54


    Chlamydiae is a bacterial phylum composed of obligate animal and protist endosymbionts. However, other members of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum are primarily free living. How Chlamydiae transitioned to an endosymbiotic lifestyle is still largely unresolved. Here we reconstructed Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae species relationships and modelled superphylum genome evolution. Gene content reconstruction from 11,996 gene families suggests a motile and facultatively anaerobic last common Chlamydiae ancestor that had already gained characteristic endosymbiont genes. Counter to expectations for genome streamlining in strict endosymbionts, we detected substantial gene gain within Chlamydiae. We found that divergence in energy metabolism and aerobiosis observed in extant lineages emerged later during chlamydial evolution. In particular, metabolic and aerobic genes characteristic of the more metabolically versatile protist-infecting chlamydiae were gained, such as respiratory chain complexes. Our results show that metabolic complexity can increase during endosymbiont evolution, adding an additional perspective for understanding symbiont evolutionary trajectories across the tree of life.

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